Authors 
Haiyan Bai, LihShing Wang, Wei Pan, and Mary Frey 

Citation 
Bai, H., Wang, L., Pan, W., & Frey, M. (2009). Measuring mathematics anxiety: Psychometric analysis of a bidimensional affective scale. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 36 (3), 185193. 

Purpose 
The purpose of this measure is to capture a bidimensional affective scale measuring mathematics anxiety with high psychometric quality. 

Population 
The scale is designed for the general adult population 

Administration 
The scale is usually selfadministered, as part of a more comprehensive questionnaire. Time: It requires 28 minutes to complete. Scoring: Responses are made on a 5 point scale. Sum up the responses to all items to yield the final composite score with a range from 14 to 70. For negativeaffect items low scores indicate high anxiety. Reverse coded items include positiveaffect items were reversed for scoring so that a high score indicates high anxiety. 

Description 
Previous research on math anxiety has shown that it is a multidimensional psychological construct that involves complex factors, such as feelings of pressure, performance inadequacy and test anxiety that interfere with the manipulation of numbers and solving math problems. The mathematics anxiety measure is intended to assess the feelings of anxiety, dread, and nervousness associated with mathematics. 

Reliability 
Cronbach’s Alpha: .91. Factors: 2 factors : Factor 1=negative; Factor 2=positive 

Validity 
Factor structure (Construct validity). Using a set of criteria, e.g., eigenvalue (> 1.00), scree plot, and variance explained (> 60%), the exploratory factor analysis identified two factors. The two factors explained 66.7% of the total variance of the 14 items. The factor loadings ranged from .67 to .89 for the negativeaffect factor and from .67 to .87 for the positiveaffect factor. The substantial amount of variance explained and the significantly large loadings suggest that the 14item bidimensional scale, MASR, is a valid instrument to measure mathematics anxiety with both positive and negative affects. 

Strengths 
Excellent psychometric properties. The instrument allows classroom teachers and school counselors to quickly administer the instrument, assess the nature, origins, and severity of math anxiety and to develop intervention strategies to mitigate its negative consequences. 

Measure


* Reverse coded items 

Response Format 
1 = Strongly Disagree 2 = Disagree 3 = Neutral 4 = Agree 5= Strongly Agree 
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